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Trotzdem stiegen die Zuschauerzahlen auf immer neue Bestmarken. Dieser Spielplan enthält vorläufige Spiele, die noch nicht vom Staffelleiter freigeben worden sind. Das hat sogar der Kicker mit einer 2,0 belohnt. So steht in der Topelf allein Torhüter Yann Sommer. Ein weiteres Markenzeichen war die Bundesliga-Datenbank. Die drittletzte Mannschaft bestreitet Relegationsspiele gegen den Zweitliga-Dritten. Noch dramatischer war die Meisterschaftsentscheidung ein Jahr später , als sich der FC Schalke 04 nach dem erfolgreichen Ende seines Spieles bereits als Deutscher Meister wähnte, doch Bayern München in der Nachspielzeit noch das benötigte Tor zur Titelverteidigung erzielte. Gladbachs Leistung war stark, aber nicht durchweg brillant. Wir wollen den Abstand möglichst verkürzen. In der Folge wuchs die Verschuldung der Vereine stark an. FC Nürnbergdem 1. Hoffenheims Kevin Volland trifft nach neun Sekunden. Niklas Süle hingegen pausierte gegen die Griechen - um gegen Dortmund zu beginnen? Us open 2019 herren eines Sieges zum Saisonauftakt stieg Tasmania nach nur einer Spielzeit als schlechteste Mannschaft der Bundesligageschichte wieder ab und stellte dabei sieben Negativrekorde auf: Diese Betrachtungsweise ist und bleibt Stückwerk. Premiere änderte seinen Namen am 9. Die Welt9. Dafür zahlte Hermes acht Millionen Euro. Titsch-Rivero sieht nach 43 Sekunden die Rote Karte. Nachricht für die Redaktion.

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Zudem darf ein Verein ab drei gewonnenen Bundesliga-Meisterschaften einen, ab fünf einen zweiten, ab zehn einen dritten sowie ab 20 errungenen Meisterschaften einen vierten Meisterstern über dem Vereinswappen tragen. Planet Wissen , Ob Jerome Boateng in der Startelf stehen wird, ist noch offen. Was ihn auszeichnet, ist seine Erfahrung. Manager Magazin , Leblose, lauffaule und lethargische Bayern sind in der Bundesliga in die Krise gestürzt. Ausnahmen gab es bis dahin nicht; so konnte der 1. International waren die er das erfolgreichste Jahrzehnt der Bundesligavereine. Den ersten Meistertitel gewann der Österreicher Max Merkel mit München, konnte er diesen Erfolg mit dem 1.

Liga wurde im Jahre die eingleisige 2. Bundesliga mit 20 Vereinen eingeführt. Die Kriterien zur Qualifikation für diese Spielkasse setzte sich sowohl aus technischen, als auch aus sportlichen Kriterien zusammen.

Die Vereine mussten über ein Stadion mit einer Kapazität von mindestens Konnte dieses Kriterium erfüllt werden, kam es auf die sportlichen Kriterien an.

Die jeweils vier besten Mannschaften der Nord- und Süd-Staffel, sowie die Bundesligaabsteiger waren automatisch qualifiziert.

Diese errechnete sich aus den Tabellenplätzen der letzten drei Jahre. Je niedriger diese ermittelte Platzziffer war, desto besser war der Verein platziert.

Da nach der Wiedervereinigung auch Vereine aus der ehemaligen DDR mitspielten, wurde auf 24 Vereine aufgestockt und erneut eine zweigleisige 2.

Bundesliga mit je zwölf Mannschaften. Bundesliga direkt in die höchste Spielklasse des Landes auf. Bis gab es vier Fixabsteiger aus der 2.

Liga doch seit der Einführung der neuen 3. Liga änderte sich die Abstiegsregelung und es wurde fortan die Relegation im Abstiegskampf eingeführt.

Liga durch ein Relegationsspiel gegen den Tabellendritten der 3. Der bislang höchste Erfolg in der Geschichte der 2. Bundesliga gelang dem FC Hansa Rostock.

Den Zuschauerrekord in der 2. Vor der Rekordkulisse von Bundesliga und den damit verbundenen Aufstieg in die Bundesliga. Die Highlights der 2. Liga im TV und Stream.

Bundesliga Tor nach 9 Sekunden! Paderborn verspielt eine klare Führung und rettet dann doch einen Punkt. Vor allem die Gäste enttäuschen.

It is the state of the art, which, in the opinion of many a pilot is far from the full extent of its possible scope. The pilot of today's subsonic jet is appalled when flying through an extensive con-.

More aggravating is the airspace which is thoroughly covered by radar up to level but completely uncontrolled above that, offering the pilot a poor choice between flying low through thick and thin, shaking up his passengers and consuming enormous quantities of fuel, or taking a risk and flying within an airspace filled with both military and civil traffic quite ignorant of each other.

A classical case of "wasted radar" is the one, which has occured to many a pilot more than once where the radar controller directs the flight for an interception of the ILS localizer at an airport, and whilst still 20 miles or so from downwind leg directs him straight into a cumulunimbus cloud laden with turbulence, heavy icing, hailstones and possibly a lightning strike to boot.

The excuse given by the controller to the raging pilot was, of course, that his radar set is built to eliminate weather and that he had no inkling of the presence of that CB in the area, which is quite so.

Another ridiculous example happened at one of the major international American airports when several aircraft were kept in a stack for congestion reasons: Needless to say none of the patterns these aircraft performed resembled, even remotely, the prescribed holding pattern, for it is indeed difficult, if not totally impossible to do so with a jet airliner, presenting all its geometricaerodynamical problems and flying at a holding speed of between and knots, with gear and flaps retracted in order to give him the best endurance lowest fuel consumption.

This happened to be a comparatively condensed thunderstorm covering the small area of this particular holding pattern.

Only 20 miles or so away it was clear and the sun was shining over another holding point, yet the controller did not know all this for his radar set eliminated all weather and brought out airplane blips only, and so he kept his heavy traffic bobbing up and down and swerving about in a crazy manner in the only uncomfortable and UNSAFE holding pattern in this area at the time.

Had there been a weather detection radar set within the control compound, and a set procedure whereby the weatherradar controller could advise his colleague of the weather picture in his area such occurrences would be eliminated.

Similar examples of harassing situations for both pilot and controller abound. The present day, subsonic jet airliner pilot would like to see, and believes that this can be accomplished at no great effort or cost with present day equipment: Radar coverage on all routes and airways around the world, which will allow him to omit position reports sometimes required, especially within Europe, every 5 minutes or less , tell him when he errs from track or airway, tell him his distance from major check-points so that he may ha': A radar system that will cover the airspace from the ground up to level Radar which will have information on both location and altitude of both aircraft and weather on all routes excepting oceans and especially in the approach area.

Last but not least: PAR on every major runway at every major airport, enabling approaches for jet airliners down to a minima of and a half.

The time is not far off, and indeed experts predict that it will happen very shortly after we enter into the next decade, when the supersonic jet transport will enter upon the scene.

A heavier aircraft, flying at twice or thrice the speed of sound and cruising at levels of between and , bringing with it a multitude of new problems, not the least of which will be air traffic control problems.

It is almost certain that radar will have to play a major part here'. The present, though improved, terrestrial radar installations will. The SST whose long t flight over the longest stretch will only las; for two or th es hours, and.

An d 1t w1. Will Radar be able to do all this? I believe it will. Aviation has surmounted greater obstacles than this in the t. For if we reach the supersonic flight age with Radar not up to what it.

The 11 O m NADGE programme will be the largest electronics project ever to be undertaken in Europe and will involve radars, data processing, and communications equipment forming an integrated NATO electronic air defence system.

This project has resulted in the formation of a number of consortia comprising all the leading electronics companies of North America and Europe.

During this meeting, several significant international agreements were reached on the principals and details of secondary surveillance radar, which was recognized as a basic navigational tool.

In this category are Germany, France, and Sweden. Still others are approaching final decisions regarding the specific characteristics required to meet the local and common problems of air traffic control in their airspace.

Italy, and the Eurocontrol Organization are representative of this group. In short, our IFATCA meeting occurs during a period of intense SSR activity, and at a time when twenty years of developmental work and ten years of international conferences are beginning to produce tangible results.

The way is not smooth for this program by any means. The ICAO meetings did not provide universal solutions or agreements between nations on several of the important detailed characteristics of secondary radar.

Meetings continue on these and other matters. In prior years, arguments were presented largely on theoretical grounds, and very little user experience was available.

We now see some slow resolutions of these problems as users gather experience in the application of SSR. The arguments are largely technical in nature and are not the primary subject of this paper.

It should be noted, however, that the most far-reaching effect of the continued existence of the areas of dispute is that a burden is placed on the manufacturers of SSR equipment, who must be prepared to comply with one or another or a combination of the competing positions.

This results in design costs higher than necessary and equipment capability greater than required. Since SSR equipment must be designed considerably in advance of its use, we, as manufacturers, and you, as users, cannot wait for these arguments to be resolved before we proceed with our design implementation.

In studying the problems of SSR use, it is apparent that no one implementation and no one philosophy of SSR exists which is ideally suited to the needs of al I users.

Such factors as geographical locations, height and density of air traffic, proximity of interrogator location to display site, existing primary radar display equipment, future growth forecasts, etc.

The projected increase in air traffic activity, in most areas, and the advent of higher airspeed aircraft do demand equipment which materially reduces the controller's workload per flight by means of automation techniques, sophisticated display devices, and computerization of the collision avoidance function.

On the other hand economic factors and the realities of the present-day air traffic situation usually point to an initial implementation which is relatively simple, and which represents a logical progression from an existing air traffic control facility.

A progressive approach is invariably sought which, as needs and problem complexities increase, in no way obsoletes existing equipment.

These last two points - the variety of SSR solutions and the progressive implementation of SSR capability are the primary concern of this paper.

The question is really how to approach secondary surveillance radar in a way which adapts to the specific requirements of an existing air traffic control site, be it terminal or en route, while maintaining the capability for progressive expansion to meet future needs.

The solution we present here is that which the Whittaker Corporation has adopted through seven years of experience in secondary surveillance radar, as suppliers to the Federal Aviation Agency in the United States, and as providers of SSR equipment to the Governments of Netherlands, Switzerland, and now Germany.

Current Capabilities As background information, an approach to an evolutionary secondary surveillance radar system must start with a description of current capabilities.

This is doubly true because the starting point for signal data processing is the basic interrogation and decoding scheme common to all systems. A series of secondary radar equipments, developed for use in the United States by Whittaker Corporation, have been designed, developed, manufactured, and delivered to the Federal Aviation Agency during the period from until the present.

In the aggregate, these equipments now total nearly and are installed at all U. The system is composed of two sites called, respectively, the Transmitter interrogator and Indicator decoder sites.

Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the interrogator. Defruiting is available at the interrogator site, provided by a delay line Defruiter capable of either single or double defruiting.

All systems currently in use are code systems, but are expandable to code use when needed. The system is capable of a number of different kinds of decoding.

The decoder presents all transponding targets in real time through either a bracket or an all-aircraft decoding system.

Each controller has provisions for further identifying certain of these aircraft. In addition, each selectively decoded presentation can be provided with ident blooming.

Secondly, an increase in the flexibility of m 0 d A more rapid means is also available for identifying. Referred to as active-readout decoding,.

CIVI 1 aircraft occup1e t e same airspace, or where identit. In other words the transmitter m t shaped device called a "light gun". Called emergendiscretionary use of the mode selection functions.

The aircraft transmitting use on each selected target. Establishment of upper and lower altitude limits Obiects of the advanced Digital Decoder Program and consequent filtering of targets to the display is a viable solution.

Several shortcomings in the system described above In addition, expansion of the emergency decoding capbecame obvious when this equipment was matched against ability to provide Communications Failure decoding and the ICAO specifications and the current trends in SSR user automatic altitude readout for any emergency target is requirements.

We saw the need for additional capabilities mandatory. In crease d con fid 1 ence 1n continuous equipment operation.

For this purpose, singler. This coincides with the use of the active decoder targe t-des ignating device. A further objective was to study the controller's rela tionship with the data processor to ease his physical use of the equipment and to establish o single-point e ntry of SSR cod es.

Automatic transfer of active ly identified unknown targets fr om the di sp lay to an available select channel in this process was also desirable.

Lastly, it is necessary to inte rface the passive and active decoders with the more automatic systems as air traff ic will require them in the future.

Specially, reduct ion of the controller workload through automation of the flight progress checki ng fun ction and the conflict pred iction activity, coils for th e insertion of computers into t he ATC system.

It is necessary to en sure that the rea l-time information derived from the radars and decoded by the system be formatted and provided as o digi tal output compatible with the tracking computer selected at o later dote.

Fl exibility in formatting an d compatibility w ith o wide range o f possible comp uter choi ces mu st be built into the decod ing system.

These technical objectives we re undertaken w ithin o fram ework of eco nomics d ictate d by esta bl ished rada r pr ices and appreciation o f t he need for low-cost phased implem entation.

Mo dularity, therefore, is o decoder requirement and wa s incorporated in our planning. The so me objectives of reliability and long Mean Tim e Between Failures incorporated in our ATCBl-1 , -2, and -3 eq uipments were used a s th e min imum standards for the new d ecod e r.

Two specific improve ments here were con templated: Interna l monitoring of system performance hod to be expanded and th e new function s supervised through quickcontrol switchover capabilities.

Another objective was to improve d isplay techniques for target information so th at at least three add it ional useful types of target presentation could be made availab le.

Figure 5 sho ws the operator's con trol box to be suppl ied wi th the first advanced SS R syste m to be installed in G e rmany later this year.

An analysis of its operating characterist ics demonstrates how the objectives out! The box may be composed of four modu les.

Three of these modules are identical, each w ith provis ion s for five chann els o f p assive selective decoding, thus permitting 5, l 0, o r 15 selectable channels to be provided at each con troll er position.

Each channel of selectable decoding is provided with a code selection capability by means of four indicating thumbwheels.

A fifth thumbwheel designates the mode in which each code is to be recognized. These thumbwheels are selected in advance by the controller for each aircraft expected within his control sector, and may represent either a functional code e.

Opposite each selected target a three-digit display of altitude, measured in hundreds of feet, is provided. Any selected target which reports its altitude in Mode C will activate these digital indicators and will update them automatically each time the aircraft's altitude changes.

The section of the box to the controller's left contains an active readout panel, providing information needed for an unknown target selected from the display by means of the light gun, rolling ball, or joystick target designator.

The active readout panel shows the mode, code, and altitude of the target so selected. This section of the control box also presents emergency and communication failure information.

The identity field will read 7 in case of civil emergency, 7 in case of communication failure, and the actual aircraft identity code when a military aircraft emergency is encountered.

Altitude readout for the emergency target is also provided. Audible and visible alarms are sounded, and the bloomed slash marker appears on the display.

The height sectorization or filtering process is provided by the estab1ishment of upper and lower limits. Using these controls, the operator eliminates from his display all targets reporting in Mode C which are above or below his zone of interest.

Targets which fail to report altitude will not be filtered from. Figure 6 shows the Master Control Box prov1. The interrogator then acts in the modes w h"1ch one or more controllers have selected.

Only the modes d. He also resets emergency alarms when they have been sounded, and is made aware through failure indicators of any maintenance requirement in the interrogator or decoder.

Another function provided to the master controller is the insertion of local atmospheric pressure by means of a barometric control on the master control box.

Discretion remains with the individual controller to select either flight level uncorrected or QNH pressure corrected reporting, depending upon which criterion his target aircraft uses for altitude assignments.

These, then, are the operating functions of the advanced SSR site currently in manufacture for the German government and available now for use in international air traffic control.

All of the features, such as altitude filtering, barometric setting, three-mode interlace, 1 through 15 channels of selectable decoding, active readout, versus 64 code decoding, 1 through 12 decoder positions, and single- or dualchannel operation with automatic switchover, are available as incremental choices that can be added or subtracted from a particular installation initially or at any time in the future.

Most of these functions are provided by means of plug-in cards and modules, and space for all of them is provided in the basic design.

Some of the features of the system not referred to specifically above include standard side lobe suppression three-pulse , defruiting operations with either delay line or storage tube variations , variable power output up to watts, antennae of both the directional and beam varieties, double and triple rotating joints, antenna pedestals and turning mechanisms where on-mounted primary antenna synchronization is not possible, test equipment, spare parts, and installation and maintenance service.

Expansions for the Future Though the system described above represents advanced capabilities, it is still to be looked upon as an interim system capability.

In some applications the interim phase may be as long as the service life of the equipment, e. In other applications, forecasts show that additional automation will be required and justified within five years after initial installation.

For the latter eventuali-. Again, these may be added initially or at any time in the future. These expansion capabilities are: Figure 7 shows how the displays may present either synthetically written target circles and leaders pointing to data blocks, or single target designators which provide direct correlations with decoder channels on the operator's control box.

These displays are possible with either ppi displays or scan-converted display systems using television raster techniques.

The addition of an active readout, on-display data block is also possible. This system produces a triangle around the target with a leader attached to the data block.

All data blocks track their related targets on the display. The position of the data block is optional, and the controller has the ability to inhibit some or all of this information as desired.

A monopulse resolution improvement receiver for increasing target definition by reduction of slash width display is available.

The unit presents constant dimension targets at any point on the display. It also presents a radial stem at the target center to locate the aircraft position precisely see Figure 7.

The systems provided to Germany incorporate this capability from the outset. High Resolution and other Improvements in Video Mapping During there became available a video map with a resolution better than one part in a thousand of its radius.

Its introduction into operational use is a matter of considerable importance as far as controllers are concerned.

For the first time they are being given a measuring tool comparable in performance with their radar.

In fact in accuracy and resolution it is frequently superior to current PPI displays. Resolution is partly the ability to see something small, but it presupposes the ability to see as separate entities small objects which are close together.

Imagine a summer's day on which you are standing with your back to the sun looking at a hill. If somebody on the hill has a mirror and adjusts its angle until the sun is reflected into your eyes, you see it quite clearly.

Now someone close beside him produces another mirror, and adjusts its angle so that this too reflects the sun into your eyes. While it is still moving, you are conscious that there is a second mirror, but when it is stationary you are unable to discriminate between them.

As far as your eye is concerned, the patch of darkness between the two mirrors is lost. You do not see the mirrors as separate entities, but as one intensely bright area against a lower level of background light.

Under conditions of glare, the eye does not have the ability to resolve objects close together. Although video maps vary in design, they are based on the principle of illuminating a photographic plate by a moving spot of light derived from a cathode ray tube.

If this spot is big we get glare conditions and detail is lost. The analogy of sunlight is not an exact parallel but provides a useful mental image.

For instance sunlight shining through a crack into a darkened room makes the crack seem so much wider than it is. The CRT spot crossing a line on the plate is made to seem wider because some light starts to get through as soon as the edge of the spot touches the line and the line continues to be illuminated until the trailin; edge reaches the other side.

Then there is afterglow. The phosphor of the tube face does not stop glowing as soon as the electron beam has moved on, so that even after the spot has passed some light is still emitted.

This effectively adds to the width of the line unless it is suppressed electronically. You can see how this happens if you consider how the illumination of a PPI is always related to time.

The PPI picture is painted by a spot which moves outwards in a series of radials. In terms of the scale chosen for the display, its speed is half that of an electromagnetic wave.

The direction of each radial corresponds to the direction in which the radar pulse was transmitted, which is the same as saying the direction the aerial was pointing at the instant of time at which the pulse left it.

When reflected energy comes back to the radar receiver, it is applied to the spot to brighten it. In the same way the light passing through the video map plate is used to brighten the PPI spot offer interim conversion into a video signal.

The rise and fall in that video signal and the corresponding variation in intensity of the PPI spot is related to the amount of light passing through the video map plate.

It is the time at which it passes through, and not the place which is important. For this reason it is not possible to improve the quality of the picture seen on the PPI by drawing finer lines on the map plate.

If the CRT spot in the video map is large in relation to the line thickness, it takes a significant time to cross the line and image on the PPI is thickened.

CRT spot size and line thickness go hand in hand, and only with the introduction of microspot tubes has it become possible to take a significant step forward.

We can now have a spot size of. What is more, the size of the spot can be maintained within these limits despite the fact that the CRT face is flat.

This flatness is important. If we look at Figure 1 we see that the spot on the map plate is produced as an image of the original spot in the CRT by interposing a lens.

Near the centre of the picture, the lines on the plate can be slightly thinner without loss of illumination, but nearer the circumference they may have to be drawn a little thicker, especially if they are radials or almost so.

This is because the radial scan lines can be an appreciable distance apart near the edge of the tube i.

When this happens a radial line on the map may be illuminated on average only on alternate sweeps, or where it is slightly divergent from a true radial it may be shown broken.

These effects are most noticeable when a display is expanded and off centred. However, with the shorter recovery time now possible with PPl's, the tendency is to work at higher PRF's, and there is less risk that the map will be degraded towards its edge.

We have already touched on the question of afterglow and its suppression. This is done by clipping the video signal leaving the photomultiplier at the bottom of its amplitude curve.

This clipping eliminates the first portion of the curve where the signal strength is increasing slowly, and also the last portion where due to afterglow the signal dies away even more slowly.

It also serves to eliminate "noise". The signal is also clipped at its peak to ensure an even video level over this entire PPI.

This avoids variations in the brightness of the map as seen by the controller. Looked at diagramatically Fig. Variations in intensity across a line produce an appearance of fuzziness and it is a natural reaction to turn up the gain to get a line which is apparently sharper.

This is obviously a state to be avoided because if the map appears sharp at a low gain setting it is possible to include more information without a feeling of clutter.

This is even more the case where lines on the video map are fine and much information can be accommodated in a small space.

The fact that it is now possible to include more information and to display it with greater accuracy makes it necessary to take a look at the manner in which informa tion is laid out and the sources from which it is obtained.

As regards layout, there is a prima facie case for stan-. As regards source, it is evident that to achieve a plate accuracy comparable with the overall accuracy of video mapping equipment, six figures latitude and longitude positions must be used, and that the projection must be such as to produce minimal errors in range and bearing.

Fortunately the conical orthomorphic projection used in ICAO charts generates comparatively small range and bearing errors. On a typical 1: It is therefore possible to use an ICAO chart as the basis for the preparation of a master drawing.

To avoid the need to transfer lines of latitude and longitude, it is convenient that the master should be made as a tracing. As a high degree of stability is required, a Melinex or Mylar base such as "Permatrace" or "Stabilene" is used.

As video maps are centred on the position of the radar head, this position must be established with the same accuracy as any other. Indeed, it is more important than any other position, because the positioning of the plate in regard to the optical system and the accuracy of range and bearing are related to it.

It is, of course, the centre of the tracing. Working with a l: The scale of the chart is approximately ten times that of the plate, which has a working area 4" in diameter.

As the final line thickness will be for the most part. The precise relationship is determined by the photographic process: The tracing is provided with aligning marks in the centre and at either end.

These are used for setting the finished map plate accurately into its carrier, the work being done in a jig under a microscope, and to an accuracy of.

Scaling marks are included to serve as a check at the PPL These take the form of a letter "T" and are positioned 90c apart at the same radius from the centre, being in fact an arc of a circle designed to lie over a range mark.

The alignment of North incidentally must be the same as that used for the radar. Where magnetic north, true north, or runway heading are used, it is important that the alignment of the map and radar be the same.

The finished tracing must be photographed with great accuracy. This is the specialist field of the scientific photographer.

Points about which he must concern himself are the need to have his camera axis precisely at right angles to the tracing to eliminate scale distortion and to have his focus exact to avoid change in the line thickness.

The plate emulsion must be one which will produce clear whites. A white which is even slightly grey can result in considerable light loss.

The finished plate is a negative of the tracing, the lines being white on a black ground. Where more than one identical plate is required, they can be made from a master positive by contact printing, but specialised techniques are necessary to ensure that contact between the two emulsions is fully maintained.

Failure to achieve this means a variation in line thickness. The completed plate is fitted in the carrier under the microscope in the alignment jig, and cemented into position.

The carrier is then inserted into the optical system of the map and locked. Any slight adjustment necessary can be made by means of X, Y and 8 shifts on the optical system using the scaling marks on the plate as a guide,.

Prior to insertion of the operational plate, two other plates have already been used for testing the system.

These are the Resolution and linearity Test Plates. The first provides an overall check of the efficiency of the system.

The second ensures that the range measured along a radial is linear - that is to say that the scale remains constant. This in conjunction with the scaling marks on the operational plate, and the use of a precise range mark generator, ensures that the video map and radar picture are precisely related.

In a plate having a radius of n. European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation. The extension of the system to the use of codes on Modes A and B will subsequently require transponders modified in accordance with the Recommendations of the same Annex.

To assist progressive introduction of the use of codes, operators are encouraged to have the corresponding airborne capability available in advance of the mandatory requirement.

The use of Mode C will be gradually implemented. The dates for implementation in some UIRs are stated in this circular. The remainder, with the minimum 12 months notice, will be promulgated later.

The equipment required needs to transmit altitude information in ft. At some time in the future this minimum provision will become mandatory.

It is desirable that as soon as possible military aircraft flying as General Air Traffic have Mode C altitude reporting capability also.

This will become mandatory at a later date. Any additional requirements will be promulgated later. Implementation of Secondary Radar 1.

The upper airspace users and the ATS System will benefit fully from the advantages to be expected from the use of Secondary Radar only when all aircraft concerned are equipped with suitable transponders, and all ground units concerned are equipped with complementary interrogators, decoders and displays.

A coordinated time-table has therefore been established for the progressive implementation of Secondary Radar Service for the Upper Airspace of the Eurocontrol Area, and for the corresponding requirement for aircraft to carry suitable functioning trans-.

In drawing up the attached time-table, account has been taken of the intentions, already published by individual member states, regarding the compulsory carriage of Secondary Radar transponders and of the!

CAO recommendations to give at least one year's notice of such requirements. This time-table will be kept under review in the light of progress achieved in the implementation of secondary radar ground facilities.

The future use of this mode is still under investigation. Notes l, 2 and 3 Intention already published by the U.

Notes l, 2 and 3 Aircraft operating at FL and above will be required, to carry transponders with effect from lst Juli, , but in view of Recommendation 2!

Intention already published by the U. Additional SSR ground-equipment will become available in as an auxiliary to the primary radar equipment used for the control of aircraft operating in the Amsterdam Terminal Control Area.

For this equipment mode A will also be used, while the codehandling capacity of the decoding equipment will also be 64 codes A and B pulses. Policy Taking into account the constantly increasing role which radar is playing in the provision of Air Traffic Control services, it is of the greatest importance that definite measures be taken with respect to the positive identification of aircraft.

Taking also into account the weak radar reflection characteristics of some types of aircraft, SSR is capable of solving this problem.

Introduction Whilst the principles of Air Traffic Control are agreed internationally and remain the same throughout the world, the method of implementation varies from country to country and in many instances from ATCC to ATCC within a national boundary.

This being so, it follows therefore, when considering Data Processing for Air Traffic Control, that no one definite system can be exactly tailored to meet all ATCC requirements.

To overcome this basic problem, it is essential for a manufacturer to be able to offer a wide range of techniques and hardware in order that systems may be built up from standard and semi-standard modules to suit particular ATCC or Air Traffic Control requirements.

It must be borne in mind that such requirements may range from simple first steps to sophisticated complex and complete ATC Data Processing Systems.

Principles and Aims The aims and principles of the ATC Service are well known, so it is not proposed to examine or expound these aims and principles except where these influence the philosophy to be adopted by ATC Data Processing system designers.

Safety and Reliability Naturally, the first and foremost aim which comes to mind is the safety of aircraft. Safety in the air and on the ground is enhanced by many factors, not least of which is the confidence engendered by reliable equipment and a reliable human operated service.

It is true to say that the ATC Service and aircrew each have confidence in the other's ability, largely brought about by knowledge and understanding of the difficulties of each other's task.

It is important then, that any proposed system which either overlays or modifies the ATC system being operated, must provide a high order of reliability at least as good as exists today, or improving upon this.

Such reliability not only applies to the hardware but equally to the data being processed. This is the first consideration towards the continuance of the confidence already built up.

The next consideration in this context is to introduce the Data Processing System in such a manner that the existing system is disturbed as little as possible.

In other words, the transition is painless and smooth. This is important both to the controller who is operating the system and to the service provided by the controller.

A controller should never have to learn to use a complicated new system; it should be designed and then phased in so that it forms an "overlay".

No break in the service therefore occurs, the controller quickly becomes familiar with the rnonagernent of the new system, and no degradation of the service is incurred.

This method permits the controller to evolve with the system development, his acclimatisation period creates confidence and he becomes aware of the potentiality of the system in a short time.

Step by step introduction permits the evolutionary development. Similarly, the introduction of further phases, when required, should follow the same pattern.

The results of achieving such objectives are to red. The main benefit which results from thi: In other words, his real efficiency is sustained over a longer period.

This can embrace some or all of the following: It can be said that any of the above, either in isolation or in toto, will reduce the work-load of the controller if properly implemented.

It follows, then, if the work load on the controller is reduced, that the Captain will obtain an even better service than he is getting today.

The effect, then, on the Captain is to reduce his cockpit work load and frustrating communication delays, and provide him with a quicker and better service.

Decision An often repeated argument in the decision making context is, "when computer systems are introduced into Air Traffic Control first the Controller and later the Captain will become redundant".

Take heart, all the present generation and probably the next and the one after of Controllers and Captains will be required to go on making decisions up to their normal retiring age.

The present state of technology does not as yet permit the Decision Making Function of the Controller or Captain to be replaced by the Computer or Data Processing System.

It will be many years before this function is removed. This brings the total membership of ICAO to states. The President of the Turkish Association, Mr.

This association has been founded on October 21, ; its President is Mr. Ivan Sirola, the Secretary is Mr. This is not to say that either or both cannot be assisted by the Data Processing System provided the data is correctly presented and trial solutions are offered.

In which case, the Controller or Captain selects the solution offered and acts upon it. This is far removed, however, from the computer making the decisions.

This is the right application of the computer system, a tool of the Controller's trade, albeit a very powerful tool, but nevertheless the Controller will remain master for many years to come.

Conclusions No attempt has been made in this paper to specify any particular type of equipment or to define the software requirements.

The reasons stated at the beginning of the paper justify leaving out detail of this nature. However, it is apparent that a number of aims can be successfully met providing manufacturers adopt a realistic philosophy which keeps in mind the present operational requirements and evolutionary capabilities of the Air Traffic Control Service.

Their affiliation with the Federation is the final result of long and friendly contacts, and one aspect renders particular significance to the joining of New Zealand and Venezuela: Osorio, the President of the Venezuelan Association, wrote us about its 8th National Convention, held last January, and introduced the Association's board of officers: We are looking forward to meeting the representatives of our new Members and Corporation Members at the Vienna Conference.

The theme of the Conference: This will highlight accomplishments of the past decade, and emphasize the goals of the. This paper was subsequently reprinted in "The Controller" Vol.

The purpose of this paper is therefore not to describe again the features of HARCO, but to review the development of the system since Similarly, it is appropriate to look at the lines along which our digital data link equipment has progressed since some of the IFATCA delegates saw a practical demonstration during the London and Brussels Conferences.

Within the first category, one of the significant improvements in ground equipment is the synchronisation of the lane and zone identification signals throughout a group of chains, to facilitate automatic chain changing in the airborne receiver.

The English and French Chains have already been converted for synchronised operation and more chains ore to follow. The paper referred to work on the second version of the airborne digital computer, Omnitroc 2.

This computer has now been in use for some two years, offers a much wider range of facilities to both pilots and ATC than Omnitrac 1 and will form the computer element of the airborne navigation system.

It will also accept inputs from a variety of navigation sensors, e. Such an arrangement obv1ousl! In this case Decca can be used as the primary aid, with Doppler and air data acting as back-ups.

Alternatively Doppler may form the primary input with Decca automatically correcting the accumulated Doppler error. Evaluation Progress The second.

Technical trials hove been carried. Considerable progress has been made in this work, to the extent that the technical evaluation, by Bretigny and Boscombe Down has now been completed.

Technical ground and flight. The next stage would be an operational. For this purpose, the installation. The object of this aspect of the trials would be, not only to test and analyse operational performance, such as precise track keeping ability, but also to extract information concerning the facilities afforded by the navigation system for ATC application.

Such information would include the ability to define flexible route structures, reduced lateral separation and smaller holding areas. An evaluation of this nature must be comprehensive and therefore would be likely to take from one to two years to complete.

In our particular case, we are referring to a small box in the aircraft which encodes the navigation information, position and flight level as seen by the pilot, for transmission, in digital form to Air Traffic Control.

This short digital transmission is received on the ground in a form suitable for direct access to the ATC computer, where it can be correlated with other stored information.

Alternatively, using simple automatic data processing equipment, it can be fed straight to the controllers' dynamic and tabular displays. Data Link Functions The first function of the data link has been described in the preceding paragraph, namely the automatic provision of air derived position and Flight Level, correlated with identity, to Air Traffic Control.

The second function concerns the automatic exchange of A TC messages from control Ier to pilot and from pilot to controller.

So far as the first function is concerned, we have been working for the past two years on the display of basic ATC information.

Originally the airborne position data was fed to a plotting table which displayed the precise track being flown by the aircraft. More recently this position data has been used to locate a symbol on a PPI tube, thus displaying the position of the aircraft dynamically in relation to a video map of controlled airspace, and also in relation to the displayed information from primary radar.

Thus a direct comparison between raw radar and data link information can be made. At the same time the Flight Level, as received via the data link has been displayed on a separate in-line indicator.

Ultimately it will be possible to display Flight Level and identity using alpha numeric characters, alongside the position symbol on the controllers' displays.

Since the acquisition of this data is entirely automatic, no voice reporting is required. The information can be transmitted and received at a very high rate; with VHF using bits per second, the equipment can interrogate and receive replies at a rate of 5 aircraft per second, 50 aircraft in ten seconds, etc.

The information derived from a data link can only be as good as the source of such data. It is therefore essential to derive position and Flight Level from a highly accurate navigation system and digital altimeter in the aircraft.

Furthermore the data link itself must have a high reliability and error detection capability. The HARCO data link, for instance, has been designed for fail-safe operation; on the principle that no information is better than wrong information, the error detection process is designed to show up and eliminate any error or distortion in the transmitted message.

During two years and over 2, hours of development operation, million bits of information have been exchanged and we have yet to display an incorrect message.

Work is now proceeding on the second function, i. Using an entry keyboard and display, with a corresponding display in the cockpit, the controller may incorporate instruc-.

As an example the controller may select the symbols --'-" , signifying a clearance to climb to FL By pressing an action button this instruction is automatically transmitted to the aircraft concerned and appears on the cockpit indicator.

When an "acknowledge" button is pressed by the pilot, confirmation that the message has been correctly received is sent to the controller.

This also means that if the message is displayed erroneously in the cockpit, the controller is made aware of the error and can correct the message.

In like manner, we are working on the automatic transmission of control messages, such as request for reclearance from the pilot to the controller.

In the first place HARCO, by virtue of its highly accurate area coverage facilities, provides the pilot with a high degree of track keeping capability.

Together with the navigation capability in the vertical plane, this signifies more accurate compliance with ATC clearances.

The data link provides the essential data on aircraft position, Flight Level and identity to corroborate the adherence to the ATC clearance specified.

Used in conjunction with data derived from ground radar, the data link forms an independent source of information for the controller, data moreover, upon which the pilot is conducting his flight.

A committee of three executive and private pilots evaluates reports submitted by General Aviation pilots. The Award will be presented to Mrs.

Pope has recently left Air Traffic Control to become the first British woman pilot to fly for a commerc1ol airline. We sincerely congratulate Mrs.

Since the introduction of prop-jet and jet aircraft in civil aviation, aircraft enter terminal control areas with indicated airspeeds, varying from about 85 to knots.

Needless to say, traffic sequencing in these areas becomes more and more difficult, especially in peak hours at airports frequently used by a great number of operators using different types of aircraft, which is the case at many civil airports in Western Europe.

This puts a heavy load on the approach controller's radar spacing technique and it is therefore no wonder that computers are being developed by the industry to assist approach controllers in proper sequencing, in order to effect a constant flow of traffic with the least possible delay for each aircraft.

It is, however, also possible to sequence efficiently without the use of special computers. As the variations in speed are causing the trouble, these should be attacked.

This can be achieved by a technique called "speed control". Speed control simply means that pilots of aircraft operating in a terminal area with the intention to land at an aerodrome within this area, are requested to fly at specf1ed speeds in order to enable ATC to plan the arrival sequence as efficiently as possible.

The first question arising from this restriction is by whom should these speeds be specified; by the State concerned or by the controller with authorization of the State?

One possibility is that governments lay down these speeds in Aeronautical Information Publications. In this case speeds could be specified e.

Abarbanell fighter-pilot in finding his foe, as an aid to the weary bomber-crew in finding their base and the landing runway in the midst of a fog as thick as pea soup and as an aid in telling the difference between friend and foe, especially in the dark hours of the night, was intensively developed by the belligerent nations and especially by the British windows live konto erstellen the Americans during the years Contributions are welcome as ore comments and criticism. The DC 8 is now flying at a groundspeed which is Beste Spielothek in Borken finden 10 knots in excess of that of the Viscount, which results in Beste Spielothek in Granges finden loss of only about 1 nautical mile in separation over a distance of 30 noutico I miles. If this spot is big we get glare conditions and detail is lost. We sincerely congratulate Mrs. The operation of these components is described below. Therefore this tool is not only useful for controllers but it will on the other hand save money on the part of airline operators. There follows a long and complicated history of early go wild casino online, total failure, and qualified success in the field of radio detection carried out in Beste Spielothek in Kalkofen finden parts of the world during the next decade. Bundeslo trials hove been carried. However, it is apparent that a number of aims can be successfully Beste Spielothek in Messendorfberg finden providing manufacturers adopt a realistic philosophy which keeps in mind the present operational requirements and evolutionary capabilities europa casino download the Air Traffic Control Service. All systems currently in use are code systems, but are expandable to code use when needed. Beste Spielothek in Wiemsdorf finden upper airspace users and the ATS System will benefit fully from the advantages to be expected from the use of Secondary Radar only when all aircraft concerned are equipped with suitable transponders, and all ground units concerned are equipped with complementary interrogators, decoders and displays.

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Easy to operate and maintain. Solartron equipment has been chosen by a number of Civil and Military Air Traffic Control authorities throughout the world.

Installation and construction currently in hand include:. Telephone Farnborough Hants Telex: OM 8,- per annum in Germany. IFATCA does not assume responsibility for statements made and opinions expressed, it does only accept responsibility for publishing these contributions.

Contributions are welcome as ore comments and criticism. The Editor reserves the right to make any editorial changes in manuscripts, which he believes will improve the material without altering the intended meaning.

Vickers Advertisers in this Issue: Back Cover Picture Credit: Tran sport to the Intercont inental Hotel at April Mo rn ing: Heribert Kreis; Cocktails, cold meal.

High resolution ond other imp rovements in video mopping General purpose computers in air t raffic control The evolution of o practical SSR system fo r air traffic con tro l.

Moy I w ish you, ladies and gentlemen, a very pleasant and en joy able stay in ou r hospital Vi enna which b ids you a friendly greet ing.

Figl The tremendous technica l progress of our time hos caused a great number of new professions to become necessary for the purpose of taking core that man remains the master of all that human wit hos inven ted and human industry hos developed.

Among these p rofessions is that of the air traffic controllers, the men who at a irports all over the world arrange for air traffic to be conducted with the highest degree of safety and who thus take core that technical prog ress will be a blessing for man.

Th e aircraft hos closely li nked countries and cont inents, unfortunately the liaison of thought hos not always been established with equal rapidity.

On ly in very few professions is the need for international cooper ation as obv ious as in those connected w i th modern air traffic.

As the Governor of th e Austria n Bundeslo nd in which the biggest Austr ian air port is situated, and wh ich hos contributed internat ion all y r ecogn ized pioneer work to aviation so me six decodes ago, I extend a hearty welcome to Delegates and Observers to the fourth Annua l IFATCA Confere nce on?

Every resol ution passed by this Conference indicates the necessity for interna tional cooperation in order to solve the prob lems brought abo ut by ra pid technica l developments.

Klostern euburg, which wd! Moy I also wis h you much success in your del1berollons which ore intended to serve al l peoples.

Moy I emphasize that th is invitation is not a i;iure f? A pos1t1ve attitude connected w ith 1deo l1sm o. Graduated from the Hebrew "Herzlio..

Slarled gliding on 8. Joined the Israeli Air Force on 1. Was released after 4 1'2 years of service holding the rank of Captain, the Defence, Guard, Independence and lhe Sinai Campaign Medals, and having been twice mentioned in Despolches.

Joined "El-Al" Israel Airlines on 1. Is now flying the line on all "El-Al" routes. Member of the Israel Society of Aeronautical Sciences.

In , Heinrich Hertz, pioneering electromagnetic waves, found that radio waves were reflected from solid obstacles. In , a German engineer named Christian Hulsmeyer was granted patents in several countries on a radio-echo collision-prevention device.

There follows a long and complicated history of early experiment, total failure, and qualified success in the field of radio detection carried out in many parts of the world during the next decade.

Finally, successful pulse radar systems were developed independently and nearly at the same time in the United States, England, France and Germany during the years Then came the Second World War and Radar, proving to be a tremendously efficient device for early detection, both on the sea and in the air, as a controlling device in complicated air operations such as mass bombing raids when a 1 OOO or more aircraft had to be maneuvered within a comparatively small airspace, as an aid to the defending.

The Second World War has left civil aviation an important, fruitful legacy, yet civil aviation was not too quick to grasp it.

There existed, at first, the obstacles of military secrecy, classified information and restricted war materiel. Then another deterrent - the prohibitive cost of radar installations within air traffic control systems kept the device from developing largely for some years.

Lastly, the cost of airborne radar equipment and its excessive weight constituting a prohibitive drain on the small payloads then carried, prevented most operators from installing radar in almost any type of propeller-driven airplane for many more years.

This period of "hesitation", lasting approximately from to came to an end with the advent of the faster, higher-flying, more efficient and economical turbo-prop or jet-prop aircraft, the steadily increasing air traffic and the realization that the electronic industry did not stand still since the end of the war and made available a large variety of comparatively inexpensive and light radar equipment for both the controller on the ground and the pilot in the air.

Today the pilot flying almost any type of aircraft is guided by controllers working in vast air traffic control complexes covering almost all countries around the globe and who, making use of different radar devices, tell the pilot his exact location, any deviations from track or airway, significant weather which might interfere with the smooth and safe conduct of his flight, significant traffic in his surrounding which might affect any aspect of his operation such as altitude or track.

The pilot helps the controller in his complicated task by "squaking" his transponder, an improvement on the wartime I FF, thus helping the man on the ground identify him amidst many others, all flying in close proximity.

It is not the imperfections of radar that worry us. These were solved and overcome in the past and will certainly improve to a growing extent in future.

It is the state of the art, which, in the opinion of many a pilot is far from the full extent of its possible scope. The pilot of today's subsonic jet is appalled when flying through an extensive con-.

More aggravating is the airspace which is thoroughly covered by radar up to level but completely uncontrolled above that, offering the pilot a poor choice between flying low through thick and thin, shaking up his passengers and consuming enormous quantities of fuel, or taking a risk and flying within an airspace filled with both military and civil traffic quite ignorant of each other.

A classical case of "wasted radar" is the one, which has occured to many a pilot more than once where the radar controller directs the flight for an interception of the ILS localizer at an airport, and whilst still 20 miles or so from downwind leg directs him straight into a cumulunimbus cloud laden with turbulence, heavy icing, hailstones and possibly a lightning strike to boot.

The excuse given by the controller to the raging pilot was, of course, that his radar set is built to eliminate weather and that he had no inkling of the presence of that CB in the area, which is quite so.

Another ridiculous example happened at one of the major international American airports when several aircraft were kept in a stack for congestion reasons: Needless to say none of the patterns these aircraft performed resembled, even remotely, the prescribed holding pattern, for it is indeed difficult, if not totally impossible to do so with a jet airliner, presenting all its geometricaerodynamical problems and flying at a holding speed of between and knots, with gear and flaps retracted in order to give him the best endurance lowest fuel consumption.

This happened to be a comparatively condensed thunderstorm covering the small area of this particular holding pattern. Only 20 miles or so away it was clear and the sun was shining over another holding point, yet the controller did not know all this for his radar set eliminated all weather and brought out airplane blips only, and so he kept his heavy traffic bobbing up and down and swerving about in a crazy manner in the only uncomfortable and UNSAFE holding pattern in this area at the time.

Had there been a weather detection radar set within the control compound, and a set procedure whereby the weatherradar controller could advise his colleague of the weather picture in his area such occurrences would be eliminated.

Similar examples of harassing situations for both pilot and controller abound. The present day, subsonic jet airliner pilot would like to see, and believes that this can be accomplished at no great effort or cost with present day equipment: Radar coverage on all routes and airways around the world, which will allow him to omit position reports sometimes required, especially within Europe, every 5 minutes or less , tell him when he errs from track or airway, tell him his distance from major check-points so that he may ha': A radar system that will cover the airspace from the ground up to level Radar which will have information on both location and altitude of both aircraft and weather on all routes excepting oceans and especially in the approach area.

Last but not least: PAR on every major runway at every major airport, enabling approaches for jet airliners down to a minima of and a half.

The time is not far off, and indeed experts predict that it will happen very shortly after we enter into the next decade, when the supersonic jet transport will enter upon the scene.

A heavier aircraft, flying at twice or thrice the speed of sound and cruising at levels of between and , bringing with it a multitude of new problems, not the least of which will be air traffic control problems.

It is almost certain that radar will have to play a major part here'. The present, though improved, terrestrial radar installations will. The SST whose long t flight over the longest stretch will only las; for two or th es hours, and.

An d 1t w1. Will Radar be able to do all this? I believe it will. Aviation has surmounted greater obstacles than this in the t.

For if we reach the supersonic flight age with Radar not up to what it. The 11 O m NADGE programme will be the largest electronics project ever to be undertaken in Europe and will involve radars, data processing, and communications equipment forming an integrated NATO electronic air defence system.

This project has resulted in the formation of a number of consortia comprising all the leading electronics companies of North America and Europe.

During this meeting, several significant international agreements were reached on the principals and details of secondary surveillance radar, which was recognized as a basic navigational tool.

In this category are Germany, France, and Sweden. Still others are approaching final decisions regarding the specific characteristics required to meet the local and common problems of air traffic control in their airspace.

Italy, and the Eurocontrol Organization are representative of this group. In short, our IFATCA meeting occurs during a period of intense SSR activity, and at a time when twenty years of developmental work and ten years of international conferences are beginning to produce tangible results.

The way is not smooth for this program by any means. The ICAO meetings did not provide universal solutions or agreements between nations on several of the important detailed characteristics of secondary radar.

Meetings continue on these and other matters. In prior years, arguments were presented largely on theoretical grounds, and very little user experience was available.

We now see some slow resolutions of these problems as users gather experience in the application of SSR.

The arguments are largely technical in nature and are not the primary subject of this paper. It should be noted, however, that the most far-reaching effect of the continued existence of the areas of dispute is that a burden is placed on the manufacturers of SSR equipment, who must be prepared to comply with one or another or a combination of the competing positions.

This results in design costs higher than necessary and equipment capability greater than required. Since SSR equipment must be designed considerably in advance of its use, we, as manufacturers, and you, as users, cannot wait for these arguments to be resolved before we proceed with our design implementation.

In studying the problems of SSR use, it is apparent that no one implementation and no one philosophy of SSR exists which is ideally suited to the needs of al I users.

Such factors as geographical locations, height and density of air traffic, proximity of interrogator location to display site, existing primary radar display equipment, future growth forecasts, etc.

The projected increase in air traffic activity, in most areas, and the advent of higher airspeed aircraft do demand equipment which materially reduces the controller's workload per flight by means of automation techniques, sophisticated display devices, and computerization of the collision avoidance function.

On the other hand economic factors and the realities of the present-day air traffic situation usually point to an initial implementation which is relatively simple, and which represents a logical progression from an existing air traffic control facility.

A progressive approach is invariably sought which, as needs and problem complexities increase, in no way obsoletes existing equipment.

These last two points - the variety of SSR solutions and the progressive implementation of SSR capability are the primary concern of this paper. The question is really how to approach secondary surveillance radar in a way which adapts to the specific requirements of an existing air traffic control site, be it terminal or en route, while maintaining the capability for progressive expansion to meet future needs.

The solution we present here is that which the Whittaker Corporation has adopted through seven years of experience in secondary surveillance radar, as suppliers to the Federal Aviation Agency in the United States, and as providers of SSR equipment to the Governments of Netherlands, Switzerland, and now Germany.

Current Capabilities As background information, an approach to an evolutionary secondary surveillance radar system must start with a description of current capabilities.

This is doubly true because the starting point for signal data processing is the basic interrogation and decoding scheme common to all systems.

A series of secondary radar equipments, developed for use in the United States by Whittaker Corporation, have been designed, developed, manufactured, and delivered to the Federal Aviation Agency during the period from until the present.

In the aggregate, these equipments now total nearly and are installed at all U. The system is composed of two sites called, respectively, the Transmitter interrogator and Indicator decoder sites.

Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the interrogator. Defruiting is available at the interrogator site, provided by a delay line Defruiter capable of either single or double defruiting.

All systems currently in use are code systems, but are expandable to code use when needed. The system is capable of a number of different kinds of decoding.

The decoder presents all transponding targets in real time through either a bracket or an all-aircraft decoding system. Each controller has provisions for further identifying certain of these aircraft.

In addition, each selectively decoded presentation can be provided with ident blooming. Secondly, an increase in the flexibility of m 0 d A more rapid means is also available for identifying.

Referred to as active-readout decoding,. CIVI 1 aircraft occup1e t e same airspace, or where identit.

In other words the transmitter m t shaped device called a "light gun". Called emergendiscretionary use of the mode selection functions.

The aircraft transmitting use on each selected target. Establishment of upper and lower altitude limits Obiects of the advanced Digital Decoder Program and consequent filtering of targets to the display is a viable solution.

Several shortcomings in the system described above In addition, expansion of the emergency decoding capbecame obvious when this equipment was matched against ability to provide Communications Failure decoding and the ICAO specifications and the current trends in SSR user automatic altitude readout for any emergency target is requirements.

We saw the need for additional capabilities mandatory. In crease d con fid 1 ence 1n continuous equipment operation. For this purpose, singler.

This coincides with the use of the active decoder targe t-des ignating device. A further objective was to study the controller's rela tionship with the data processor to ease his physical use of the equipment and to establish o single-point e ntry of SSR cod es.

Automatic transfer of active ly identified unknown targets fr om the di sp lay to an available select channel in this process was also desirable.

Lastly, it is necessary to inte rface the passive and active decoders with the more automatic systems as air traff ic will require them in the future.

Specially, reduct ion of the controller workload through automation of the flight progress checki ng fun ction and the conflict pred iction activity, coils for th e insertion of computers into t he ATC system.

It is necessary to en sure that the rea l-time information derived from the radars and decoded by the system be formatted and provided as o digi tal output compatible with the tracking computer selected at o later dote.

Fl exibility in formatting an d compatibility w ith o wide range o f possible comp uter choi ces mu st be built into the decod ing system.

These technical objectives we re undertaken w ithin o fram ework of eco nomics d ictate d by esta bl ished rada r pr ices and appreciation o f t he need for low-cost phased implem entation.

Mo dularity, therefore, is o decoder requirement and wa s incorporated in our planning. The so me objectives of reliability and long Mean Tim e Between Failures incorporated in our ATCBl-1 , -2, and -3 eq uipments were used a s th e min imum standards for the new d ecod e r.

Two specific improve ments here were con templated: Interna l monitoring of system performance hod to be expanded and th e new function s supervised through quickcontrol switchover capabilities.

Another objective was to improve d isplay techniques for target information so th at at least three add it ional useful types of target presentation could be made availab le.

Figure 5 sho ws the operator's con trol box to be suppl ied wi th the first advanced SS R syste m to be installed in G e rmany later this year.

An analysis of its operating characterist ics demonstrates how the objectives out! The box may be composed of four modu les.

Three of these modules are identical, each w ith provis ion s for five chann els o f p assive selective decoding, thus permitting 5, l 0, o r 15 selectable channels to be provided at each con troll er position.

Each channel of selectable decoding is provided with a code selection capability by means of four indicating thumbwheels.

A fifth thumbwheel designates the mode in which each code is to be recognized. These thumbwheels are selected in advance by the controller for each aircraft expected within his control sector, and may represent either a functional code e.

Opposite each selected target a three-digit display of altitude, measured in hundreds of feet, is provided. Any selected target which reports its altitude in Mode C will activate these digital indicators and will update them automatically each time the aircraft's altitude changes.

The section of the box to the controller's left contains an active readout panel, providing information needed for an unknown target selected from the display by means of the light gun, rolling ball, or joystick target designator.

The active readout panel shows the mode, code, and altitude of the target so selected. This section of the control box also presents emergency and communication failure information.

The identity field will read 7 in case of civil emergency, 7 in case of communication failure, and the actual aircraft identity code when a military aircraft emergency is encountered.

Altitude readout for the emergency target is also provided. Audible and visible alarms are sounded, and the bloomed slash marker appears on the display.

The height sectorization or filtering process is provided by the estab1ishment of upper and lower limits. Using these controls, the operator eliminates from his display all targets reporting in Mode C which are above or below his zone of interest.

Targets which fail to report altitude will not be filtered from. Figure 6 shows the Master Control Box prov1. The interrogator then acts in the modes w h"1ch one or more controllers have selected.

Only the modes d. He also resets emergency alarms when they have been sounded, and is made aware through failure indicators of any maintenance requirement in the interrogator or decoder.

Another function provided to the master controller is the insertion of local atmospheric pressure by means of a barometric control on the master control box.

Discretion remains with the individual controller to select either flight level uncorrected or QNH pressure corrected reporting, depending upon which criterion his target aircraft uses for altitude assignments.

These, then, are the operating functions of the advanced SSR site currently in manufacture for the German government and available now for use in international air traffic control.

All of the features, such as altitude filtering, barometric setting, three-mode interlace, 1 through 15 channels of selectable decoding, active readout, versus 64 code decoding, 1 through 12 decoder positions, and single- or dualchannel operation with automatic switchover, are available as incremental choices that can be added or subtracted from a particular installation initially or at any time in the future.

Most of these functions are provided by means of plug-in cards and modules, and space for all of them is provided in the basic design.

Some of the features of the system not referred to specifically above include standard side lobe suppression three-pulse , defruiting operations with either delay line or storage tube variations , variable power output up to watts, antennae of both the directional and beam varieties, double and triple rotating joints, antenna pedestals and turning mechanisms where on-mounted primary antenna synchronization is not possible, test equipment, spare parts, and installation and maintenance service.

Expansions for the Future Though the system described above represents advanced capabilities, it is still to be looked upon as an interim system capability.

In some applications the interim phase may be as long as the service life of the equipment, e. In other applications, forecasts show that additional automation will be required and justified within five years after initial installation.

For the latter eventuali-. Again, these may be added initially or at any time in the future. These expansion capabilities are: Figure 7 shows how the displays may present either synthetically written target circles and leaders pointing to data blocks, or single target designators which provide direct correlations with decoder channels on the operator's control box.

These displays are possible with either ppi displays or scan-converted display systems using television raster techniques.

The addition of an active readout, on-display data block is also possible. This system produces a triangle around the target with a leader attached to the data block.

All data blocks track their related targets on the display. The position of the data block is optional, and the controller has the ability to inhibit some or all of this information as desired.

A monopulse resolution improvement receiver for increasing target definition by reduction of slash width display is available.

The unit presents constant dimension targets at any point on the display. It also presents a radial stem at the target center to locate the aircraft position precisely see Figure 7.

The systems provided to Germany incorporate this capability from the outset. High Resolution and other Improvements in Video Mapping During there became available a video map with a resolution better than one part in a thousand of its radius.

Its introduction into operational use is a matter of considerable importance as far as controllers are concerned. For the first time they are being given a measuring tool comparable in performance with their radar.

In fact in accuracy and resolution it is frequently superior to current PPI displays. Resolution is partly the ability to see something small, but it presupposes the ability to see as separate entities small objects which are close together.

Imagine a summer's day on which you are standing with your back to the sun looking at a hill. If somebody on the hill has a mirror and adjusts its angle until the sun is reflected into your eyes, you see it quite clearly.

Now someone close beside him produces another mirror, and adjusts its angle so that this too reflects the sun into your eyes.

While it is still moving, you are conscious that there is a second mirror, but when it is stationary you are unable to discriminate between them.

As far as your eye is concerned, the patch of darkness between the two mirrors is lost. You do not see the mirrors as separate entities, but as one intensely bright area against a lower level of background light.

Under conditions of glare, the eye does not have the ability to resolve objects close together. Although video maps vary in design, they are based on the principle of illuminating a photographic plate by a moving spot of light derived from a cathode ray tube.

If this spot is big we get glare conditions and detail is lost. The analogy of sunlight is not an exact parallel but provides a useful mental image.

For instance sunlight shining through a crack into a darkened room makes the crack seem so much wider than it is. The CRT spot crossing a line on the plate is made to seem wider because some light starts to get through as soon as the edge of the spot touches the line and the line continues to be illuminated until the trailin; edge reaches the other side.

Then there is afterglow. The phosphor of the tube face does not stop glowing as soon as the electron beam has moved on, so that even after the spot has passed some light is still emitted.

This effectively adds to the width of the line unless it is suppressed electronically. You can see how this happens if you consider how the illumination of a PPI is always related to time.

The PPI picture is painted by a spot which moves outwards in a series of radials. In terms of the scale chosen for the display, its speed is half that of an electromagnetic wave.

The direction of each radial corresponds to the direction in which the radar pulse was transmitted, which is the same as saying the direction the aerial was pointing at the instant of time at which the pulse left it.

When reflected energy comes back to the radar receiver, it is applied to the spot to brighten it. In the same way the light passing through the video map plate is used to brighten the PPI spot offer interim conversion into a video signal.

The rise and fall in that video signal and the corresponding variation in intensity of the PPI spot is related to the amount of light passing through the video map plate.

It is the time at which it passes through, and not the place which is important. For this reason it is not possible to improve the quality of the picture seen on the PPI by drawing finer lines on the map plate.

If the CRT spot in the video map is large in relation to the line thickness, it takes a significant time to cross the line and image on the PPI is thickened.

CRT spot size and line thickness go hand in hand, and only with the introduction of microspot tubes has it become possible to take a significant step forward.

We can now have a spot size of. What is more, the size of the spot can be maintained within these limits despite the fact that the CRT face is flat.

This flatness is important. If we look at Figure 1 we see that the spot on the map plate is produced as an image of the original spot in the CRT by interposing a lens.

Near the centre of the picture, the lines on the plate can be slightly thinner without loss of illumination, but nearer the circumference they may have to be drawn a little thicker, especially if they are radials or almost so.

This is because the radial scan lines can be an appreciable distance apart near the edge of the tube i. When this happens a radial line on the map may be illuminated on average only on alternate sweeps, or where it is slightly divergent from a true radial it may be shown broken.

These effects are most noticeable when a display is expanded and off centred. However, with the shorter recovery time now possible with PPl's, the tendency is to work at higher PRF's, and there is less risk that the map will be degraded towards its edge.

We have already touched on the question of afterglow and its suppression. This is done by clipping the video signal leaving the photomultiplier at the bottom of its amplitude curve.

This clipping eliminates the first portion of the curve where the signal strength is increasing slowly, and also the last portion where due to afterglow the signal dies away even more slowly.

It also serves to eliminate "noise". The signal is also clipped at its peak to ensure an even video level over this entire PPI.

This avoids variations in the brightness of the map as seen by the controller. Looked at diagramatically Fig. Variations in intensity across a line produce an appearance of fuzziness and it is a natural reaction to turn up the gain to get a line which is apparently sharper.

This is obviously a state to be avoided because if the map appears sharp at a low gain setting it is possible to include more information without a feeling of clutter.

This is even more the case where lines on the video map are fine and much information can be accommodated in a small space. The fact that it is now possible to include more information and to display it with greater accuracy makes it necessary to take a look at the manner in which informa tion is laid out and the sources from which it is obtained.

As regards layout, there is a prima facie case for stan-. As regards source, it is evident that to achieve a plate accuracy comparable with the overall accuracy of video mapping equipment, six figures latitude and longitude positions must be used, and that the projection must be such as to produce minimal errors in range and bearing.

Fortunately the conical orthomorphic projection used in ICAO charts generates comparatively small range and bearing errors. On a typical 1: It is therefore possible to use an ICAO chart as the basis for the preparation of a master drawing.

To avoid the need to transfer lines of latitude and longitude, it is convenient that the master should be made as a tracing. As a high degree of stability is required, a Melinex or Mylar base such as "Permatrace" or "Stabilene" is used.

As video maps are centred on the position of the radar head, this position must be established with the same accuracy as any other.

Indeed, it is more important than any other position, because the positioning of the plate in regard to the optical system and the accuracy of range and bearing are related to it.

It is, of course, the centre of the tracing. Working with a l: The scale of the chart is approximately ten times that of the plate, which has a working area 4" in diameter.

As the final line thickness will be for the most part. The precise relationship is determined by the photographic process: The tracing is provided with aligning marks in the centre and at either end.

These are used for setting the finished map plate accurately into its carrier, the work being done in a jig under a microscope, and to an accuracy of.

Scaling marks are included to serve as a check at the PPL These take the form of a letter "T" and are positioned 90c apart at the same radius from the centre, being in fact an arc of a circle designed to lie over a range mark.

The alignment of North incidentally must be the same as that used for the radar. Where magnetic north, true north, or runway heading are used, it is important that the alignment of the map and radar be the same.

The finished tracing must be photographed with great accuracy. This is the specialist field of the scientific photographer. Points about which he must concern himself are the need to have his camera axis precisely at right angles to the tracing to eliminate scale distortion and to have his focus exact to avoid change in the line thickness.

The plate emulsion must be one which will produce clear whites. A white which is even slightly grey can result in considerable light loss.

The finished plate is a negative of the tracing, the lines being white on a black ground. Where more than one identical plate is required, they can be made from a master positive by contact printing, but specialised techniques are necessary to ensure that contact between the two emulsions is fully maintained.

Failure to achieve this means a variation in line thickness. The completed plate is fitted in the carrier under the microscope in the alignment jig, and cemented into position.

The carrier is then inserted into the optical system of the map and locked. Any slight adjustment necessary can be made by means of X, Y and 8 shifts on the optical system using the scaling marks on the plate as a guide,.

Prior to insertion of the operational plate, two other plates have already been used for testing the system. These are the Resolution and linearity Test Plates.

The first provides an overall check of the efficiency of the system. The second ensures that the range measured along a radial is linear - that is to say that the scale remains constant.

This in conjunction with the scaling marks on the operational plate, and the use of a precise range mark generator, ensures that the video map and radar picture are precisely related.

In a plate having a radius of n. European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation. The extension of the system to the use of codes on Modes A and B will subsequently require transponders modified in accordance with the Recommendations of the same Annex.

To assist progressive introduction of the use of codes, operators are encouraged to have the corresponding airborne capability available in advance of the mandatory requirement.

The use of Mode C will be gradually implemented. The dates for implementation in some UIRs are stated in this circular. The remainder, with the minimum 12 months notice, will be promulgated later.

The equipment required needs to transmit altitude information in ft. At some time in the future this minimum provision will become mandatory.

It is desirable that as soon as possible military aircraft flying as General Air Traffic have Mode C altitude reporting capability also. This will become mandatory at a later date.

Any additional requirements will be promulgated later. Implementation of Secondary Radar 1. The upper airspace users and the ATS System will benefit fully from the advantages to be expected from the use of Secondary Radar only when all aircraft concerned are equipped with suitable transponders, and all ground units concerned are equipped with complementary interrogators, decoders and displays.

A coordinated time-table has therefore been established for the progressive implementation of Secondary Radar Service for the Upper Airspace of the Eurocontrol Area, and for the corresponding requirement for aircraft to carry suitable functioning trans-.

In drawing up the attached time-table, account has been taken of the intentions, already published by individual member states, regarding the compulsory carriage of Secondary Radar transponders and of the!

CAO recommendations to give at least one year's notice of such requirements. This time-table will be kept under review in the light of progress achieved in the implementation of secondary radar ground facilities.

The future use of this mode is still under investigation. Notes l, 2 and 3 Intention already published by the U. Notes l, 2 and 3 Aircraft operating at FL and above will be required, to carry transponders with effect from lst Juli, , but in view of Recommendation 2!

Intention already published by the U. Additional SSR ground-equipment will become available in as an auxiliary to the primary radar equipment used for the control of aircraft operating in the Amsterdam Terminal Control Area.

For this equipment mode A will also be used, while the codehandling capacity of the decoding equipment will also be 64 codes A and B pulses.

Policy Taking into account the constantly increasing role which radar is playing in the provision of Air Traffic Control services, it is of the greatest importance that definite measures be taken with respect to the positive identification of aircraft.

Taking also into account the weak radar reflection characteristics of some types of aircraft, SSR is capable of solving this problem. Introduction Whilst the principles of Air Traffic Control are agreed internationally and remain the same throughout the world, the method of implementation varies from country to country and in many instances from ATCC to ATCC within a national boundary.

This being so, it follows therefore, when considering Data Processing for Air Traffic Control, that no one definite system can be exactly tailored to meet all ATCC requirements.

To overcome this basic problem, it is essential for a manufacturer to be able to offer a wide range of techniques and hardware in order that systems may be built up from standard and semi-standard modules to suit particular ATCC or Air Traffic Control requirements.

It must be borne in mind that such requirements may range from simple first steps to sophisticated complex and complete ATC Data Processing Systems.

Principles and Aims The aims and principles of the ATC Service are well known, so it is not proposed to examine or expound these aims and principles except where these influence the philosophy to be adopted by ATC Data Processing system designers.

Safety and Reliability Naturally, the first and foremost aim which comes to mind is the safety of aircraft.

Safety in the air and on the ground is enhanced by many factors, not least of which is the confidence engendered by reliable equipment and a reliable human operated service.

It is true to say that the ATC Service and aircrew each have confidence in the other's ability, largely brought about by knowledge and understanding of the difficulties of each other's task.

It is important then, that any proposed system which either overlays or modifies the ATC system being operated, must provide a high order of reliability at least as good as exists today, or improving upon this.

Such reliability not only applies to the hardware but equally to the data being processed. This is the first consideration towards the continuance of the confidence already built up.

The next consideration in this context is to introduce the Data Processing System in such a manner that the existing system is disturbed as little as possible.

In other words, the transition is painless and smooth. This is important both to the controller who is operating the system and to the service provided by the controller.

A controller should never have to learn to use a complicated new system; it should be designed and then phased in so that it forms an "overlay".

No break in the service therefore occurs, the controller quickly becomes familiar with the rnonagernent of the new system, and no degradation of the service is incurred.

This method permits the controller to evolve with the system development, his acclimatisation period creates confidence and he becomes aware of the potentiality of the system in a short time.

Step by step introduction permits the evolutionary development. Similarly, the introduction of further phases, when required, should follow the same pattern.

The results of achieving such objectives are to red. The main benefit which results from thi: In other words, his real efficiency is sustained over a longer period.

This can embrace some or all of the following: It can be said that any of the above, either in isolation or in toto, will reduce the work-load of the controller if properly implemented.

It follows, then, if the work load on the controller is reduced, that the Captain will obtain an even better service than he is getting today.

The effect, then, on the Captain is to reduce his cockpit work load and frustrating communication delays, and provide him with a quicker and better service.

Decision An often repeated argument in the decision making context is, "when computer systems are introduced into Air Traffic Control first the Controller and later the Captain will become redundant".

Take heart, all the present generation and probably the next and the one after of Controllers and Captains will be required to go on making decisions up to their normal retiring age.

The present state of technology does not as yet permit the Decision Making Function of the Controller or Captain to be replaced by the Computer or Data Processing System.

It will be many years before this function is removed. This brings the total membership of ICAO to states. The President of the Turkish Association, Mr.

This association has been founded on October 21, ; its President is Mr. Ivan Sirola, the Secretary is Mr. This is not to say that either or both cannot be assisted by the Data Processing System provided the data is correctly presented and trial solutions are offered.

In which case, the Controller or Captain selects the solution offered and acts upon it. This is far removed, however, from the computer making the decisions.

This is the right application of the computer system, a tool of the Controller's trade, albeit a very powerful tool, but nevertheless the Controller will remain master for many years to come.

Conclusions No attempt has been made in this paper to specify any particular type of equipment or to define the software requirements.

The reasons stated at the beginning of the paper justify leaving out detail of this nature. However, it is apparent that a number of aims can be successfully met providing manufacturers adopt a realistic philosophy which keeps in mind the present operational requirements and evolutionary capabilities of the Air Traffic Control Service.

Their affiliation with the Federation is the final result of long and friendly contacts, and one aspect renders particular significance to the joining of New Zealand and Venezuela: Osorio, the President of the Venezuelan Association, wrote us about its 8th National Convention, held last January, and introduced the Association's board of officers: We are looking forward to meeting the representatives of our new Members and Corporation Members at the Vienna Conference.

The theme of the Conference: This will highlight accomplishments of the past decade, and emphasize the goals of the. This paper was subsequently reprinted in "The Controller" Vol.

The purpose of this paper is therefore not to describe again the features of HARCO, but to review the development of the system since Similarly, it is appropriate to look at the lines along which our digital data link equipment has progressed since some of the IFATCA delegates saw a practical demonstration during the London and Brussels Conferences.

Within the first category, one of the significant improvements in ground equipment is the synchronisation of the lane and zone identification signals throughout a group of chains, to facilitate automatic chain changing in the airborne receiver.

The English and French Chains have already been converted for synchronised operation and more chains ore to follow. The paper referred to work on the second version of the airborne digital computer, Omnitroc 2.

This computer has now been in use for some two years, offers a much wider range of facilities to both pilots and ATC than Omnitrac 1 and will form the computer element of the airborne navigation system.

It will also accept inputs from a variety of navigation sensors, e. Such an arrangement obv1ousl! In this case Decca can be used as the primary aid, with Doppler and air data acting as back-ups.

Alternatively Doppler may form the primary input with Decca automatically correcting the accumulated Doppler error. Evaluation Progress The second.

Technical trials hove been carried. Considerable progress has been made in this work, to the extent that the technical evaluation, by Bretigny and Boscombe Down has now been completed.

Technical ground and flight. The next stage would be an operational. For this purpose, the installation. IT-konsult som förverkligar affärsnytta med IT, webb, administrativa system, intranät Beste Spielothek in Dollach finden integration av affärssystem mot webb.

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